SEO: Where do I start?

Here is what you need to know for SEO.
1) Perhaps the most important thing is the canonical link tag. The canonical link tag represents an absolute path that you would like to represent your page in a search engines index to reduce redundant indexing. This is supported by MSN, Yahoo, and Google. http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/canonical-link-tag/
2) Content is king. If your content sucks then it does not matter what you do. Fix spelling and grammar errors. Write naturally and clear. Do not try to stuff your content with search terms. If your content is valid and well written it will be respectfully indexed.
3) Validate your markup. Just because Google's markup is trash is not an excuse for your markup to be trash. Search bots have to weed through your tags, attributes, and content. If the search bot has to struggle to make sense of your page, no matter how glorious your content is, it will screw you when it indexes your page.
4) Focus on accessibility more than SEO when writing markup. If a blind user can read and navigate your content with ease of understanding then so will the search bot and your page will achieve superior SEO as a result.
5) Be liberal in what you have to say, but be conservative in how you say it. Use markup that is appropriate to first structure your content and secondly describe it. Be verbose with your code and you will be well loved.
6) SEO bots do not care how pretty, usable, or interactive your page is. Put all CSS and styles in an external stylesheet. The ONLY exception to this rule is that occasionally a display:none or visibility:hidden style should go inline on elements you wish to hide from text readers. JavaScript should always exist in an external file. There is absolutely no exception to the JavaScript rule.
7) Don't encode the Bible, Quran, and Book of Mormon on a single page of HTML. Search bots have a limit, typically about 200k, and once that limit is surpassed they will abandon your page.

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